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( Review Jurnal) Field Evaluation of Indoor Thermal Fog and Ultra-Low Volume Applications For Control of Aedes aegypti in Thailand

1. Introduction

  • The German cockroach (Blattella germanica: Blattellidae) has a worldwide distribution and recent studies have shown that human dwelling infestations are increasing. Traditional dengue vector management combines individual larvicidal treatment and/or removal of oviposition sites, referred to as source reduction, with peridomestic adulticide applications.
  • Baits, routinely used inside buildings, have the advantage that they are easy and ready to use, do not need to be applied by a technician and have fewer negative side effects than spray applications. Gel and paste formulations are applied using bait guns and syringes, and have been designed to be placed or injected inside building crevices and small cracks where cockroaches seek refuge.

Aim
The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of selected commercial insecticide gel bait formulations against German cockroaches

2. Materials & Methods

Sites of cockroach collection

  • Five cockroach strains, namely a susceptible reference strain and wild strains (Mobasher, Andisheh, Tamin-e Ejtemaei, and Maskoni) from Hamadan, the capital of Hamadan Province, obtained in 2016 were used.
  • The reference strain, maintained since 1975 without exposure to any insecticide, was provided by the School of PublicHealth, TehranUniversity ofMedical Sciences

      Cockroach collection and rearing

  • Wild cockroach strains were collected using procedures described previously (Nasirian et al. 2006c, 2009). Briefly, cockroaches were collected at night, by hand, using a piece of radiology film, then transferred to an apparatus with an upper and a lower part.
  • Cockroach strains were maintained separately in large glass jars (24 × 11 cm, height × diameter) at 22 ± 3°C, 55 ± 10% relative humidity (RH) and a 12-h light–dark period in the insectary at the Medical Entomology Department, School of Medicine

Gel bait analysis

  • Four commercial gel baits, namelyMaxforce FCBaitGel (0.01% fipronil; Bayer Environmental Science, Clayton, CA, USA Maxforce FC Magnum Bait Gel (0.05% fipronil; Bayer Environmental Science), Maxforce Impact Bait Gel (1.0% clothianidin; Bayer Environmental Science) and Advion Bait Gel (0.6% indoxacarb; BayerEnvironmental Science),were used.
  • Cockroaches were starved for 24 h. Then, gel baits were placed in small plastic Petri dishes (40 × 7 mm, diameter × height), in accordance with Organization For Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) procedures (OECD 2013), before being placed in cockroach test dishes (40 × 27 cm, height × diameter) designed for cockroach bait placement for 24 h, after which the gel baits were removed. To estimate the amount of water evaporated from the gel baits, gel baits were placed in the same containers, without cockroaches, for 24 h (“control substance”). Because the size and weight of male cockroaches is more uniform than that of females, and the use of females for reproductive purposes, adult 3- to 14-day-old male cockroaches were selected for testing, and the mortality following exposure to the baits was recorded at 2-h intervals for up to 21 days. During the test period, the cockroaches were provided a rodent diet and maintained under laboratory conditions as described above (OECD 2013). The controls for each of the cockroach strains were provided with rodent diet without bait, and were maintained under the same conditions

3. Result

Consumption of gel baits by cockroaches

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